Photovoltaic concentration systems

Low concentration systems have a solar concentration of 2–20 suns in which silicon solar cells are typically used

The heat flux is typically low enough that the cells do not need to be actively cooled.
Using flat reflective surfaces in vega energy WR, the solar electric output can increase by over 30% from that of non-concentrator PV systems as sunrays are directed over the PV modules, decreasing the required PV panel surface to produce the requested energy.